Tuesday, March 10, 2009

முக்குலத்தோர் வரலாறு

The Mukkulathor (English: the three clans) is a community native to the southern districts of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The name "Mukkulathor" alludes to the three roughly designated groups, Kallar, Maravar and Agamudaiyar, which make up the community. Mukkulathors are also called Thevars.
Mukkulathors are found all over the southern and central districts of Tamil Nadu, North-east Sri Lanka and amongst Tamil expatriate communities in South-East Asia and America. There is also a small community in Chattisgarh where they had migrated during British rule. The Mukkulathor are the Kshatriyas of Tamilagam. They ruled the Tamil kingdom in the form of Chera, Chola, Pandya and Pallava dynasty. The royal houses of Pudukkottai, Ramnad and Sivaganga belong to Mukkulathor communities.
Contents
[hide]
1 Kallar
2 Maravar
3 Agamudayar
4 History
4.1 Origins
5 The Nayak Period and the Polygars
5.1 Freedom fighters and the Polygar Wars
6 Surnames
7 Religion
8 In Inscriptions
8.1 Current Status
9 The code of Predatory Warfare and Self-sacrifice by Maravars and warrior castes in ancient Tamilnadu
10 Notes
11 References
12 List of prominent Mukkulathors
13 See also
14 External links
15 Internal links
[edit] Kallar
Kallar(Tamil: கள்ளர் (page does not exist)" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E0%AE%95%E0%AE%B3%E0%AF%8D%E0%AE%B3%E0%AE%B0%E0%AF%8D&action=edit&redlink=1">கள்ளர்) (meaning "Veerar"), is one of the three castes which constitute the Mukkalathor confederacy. "a fearless community show many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation". They were expert soldiers and constituted the bulk of Chola and Pandya armies.
One of the principal weapons of the Kallars is the boomerang. This has evoked comparisons with the Australian aborigines and vouch for the theory that Kallars were one of the earliest people to inhabit the Indian subcontinent. The occupation of Kallars is warrior.
Kallars are found largely in Madurai, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Trichy, Theni and Ramanathapuram districts of Tamil Nadu. One of their popular deities is Kallazhagar who is a warrior form of Lord Thirumala or Venkadavan.
The Pandi temples (Muni koil) found in Madurai regions are the tombs of Pandia Kings and Kallars worshipped them as God. Pandiyar kudavarai found in Aritapatti (Near Melur) has been built for Siddhars by Pandia kings.
There are various sub-castes of Kallars, amongst whom the Ambalakarar is the most important. They were a warlike people who strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them. They are found in Madurai and Sivaganga districts. In these districts, each village is headed by an Ambalam (president of an assembly) and the Ambalam took upon themselves the power to adjudicate disputes that arose among the inhabitants in the "NADU", belonging to different castes. They used to hear complaints, hold inquiries and punish the offenders. They wielded considerable powers to intervene in any kind of transaction or transfer of property among the people. No land could be alienated from one man to another without the permission of the Ambalams. The sur-name "Ambalam"is given to them, because of their Administration in their Villages. So they are mostly called as "Ambalam".
Another important Kallar subcaste is the Piramalai Kallar. They are highly conservative and have preserved their customs and traditions to the present day. They are also believed to be the oldest inhabitants of the Tamil country with reports of their presence going back to Tamil literary works of the 4th century B.C. They are found mainly in the districts of Madurai, Dindigul and Theni. Their popular deity is Amman, the Mother Goddess.
Other important subcastes are Koothappar Kallars, Periyasuriyur Kallars, Gandarvakoatai Kallars and Esanattu Kallars found largely dominated in Thanjavur, Pudukkottai &Trichy Districts. Reference in Ponniyin Selvan
Some of the surnames are seen in Tamil copper-plate inscriptions was also mentioned in Ponniyin Selvan (Tamil historical novel written by Kalki Krishnamurthy).
Paluvettaraiyar(பழுவேட்டரையன்)
Malayaman(மலையமான் (page does not exist)" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E0%AE%AE%E0%AE%B2%E0%AF%88%E0%AE%AF%E0%AE%AE%E0%AE%BE%E0%AE%A9%E0%AF%8D&action=edit&redlink=1">மலையமான்)
Vallavaraiyar(வல்லவரையன்)
Nilakkilar
Kaliyaraiyar
Puvaraiyar
Mutaraiyar
Muniaraiyar
Velar(வேளார்)
Vanataraiyar
Adigaman(Adigaman Neduman Anji of Tagadur)(சதியபுதோ அதியந் நெடுமாந் அஞ்சி)
Thondaiman தொண்டைமான்
[edit] Maravar
Maravar (Tamil: மறவர்) (meaning "veerar", upper caste), are one of the oldest castes to be mentioned by the Sangam Tamil literature. This indicates an association with the Tamil land which is at least 2,000 years old. The writers of the Sangam Age place them in rural settlements withdrawn from cities. Maravar, in Tamil, means a warrior. Maravars are the courageous breed and were involved in the major wars that Tamilnadu witnessed.The Maravar are popularly given the title 'Thevar / Devar'.Other historians postulate that Maravar is derived from Tamil language term Marutham (called as Thinnai). They originally lived in (See Ancient Tamil country). The name of the city Madurai is also postulated to be derived from Maruthai and honorific title of local Pandya kings..They were the rulers of ancient tamilnadu.They ruled the vast land mass of tamilnadu along with Paravar,the coastal rulers.Both these tribes have same origin and they are famous throughout south India for their valour.They were bloodly related akins.The Maravar and Paravar constitute the Kshatriya varna of Tamil caste system.The southern styles of Kalarippayattu,silambam,varma kalai have been practiced primarily by nairs ezhavas,Kallars and Thevars of erstwhile Travancore areas.The Maravar have close relation with kalabhras but they were non-aryan,non-kalabhar group.They were ancint rulers of Pandya kingdom from the first sangam age. Another predominant caste called the Paravars and Maravars were collectively called as Meenavar and Villavar of the past.They both have same origin and they had control over pandya kingdom.Their leaders were given the title"Meenavan" or "Pandyan".Edgar Thurston (1855-1935) a British museologist and ethnographer identified the use of the boomerang by kallar and marawar.
[edit] Agamudayar
Maruthu Pandy bro's came from Agamudayar(Servai)"a fearless community show many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation". They were expert Lead Warrior’s and constituted the bulk of Chola and Pandya armies.
(Tamil: அகமுடையார்) (also known as Agam Padaiyar) is one of the three Mukkulathor castes found in all the Tamil districts. However, most agamudaiyars are found in Thanjavur, Madurai and Tirunelveli districts." [2]
They also know as rulers or the crown prince.
There are various derivations of the word "Agamudaiyan" or "Ahamudaiyan". " derived from the root aham, which, in Tamil, has many significations.[3]In one of these, it means a house, in another earth, and hence it has two meanings, householder and landholder ; the suffix Udeiyar indicating ownership. The word is also used in another form, ahambadiyan, derived from another meaning of the same root, i.e., inside. And, in this derivation, it signifies a particular caste, whose office it was to attend to the business in the interior of the king's palace, or in the pagoda".[3] " The name," Mr. J. H. Nelson writes, "is said by the Rev. G. U. Pope, in his edition of the Abbe Dubois' work to be derived from aham, a temple, and padi, a step, and to have been given to them in consequence of their serving about the steps of temples. But, independently of the fact that Madura pagodas are not approached by fiights of steps, this seems to be a very far-fetched and improbable derivation of the word. Or, perhaps, the name comes from aham in the sense of earth, and pati, master or possessor."[3][4]
ref name="castesandtribes1_p7" />[5] The ordinary title of the Agamudaiyans is Servaikkaran, but many of them call themselves Pillai.[5] In Thanjavur and tirunelveli districts agamudaiyans are also called "Terkittiyar" or "southerners".[5] The Agamudaiyans are divided into the following sub-sects: Aivali Nattan, Kottaipattu, Malainadu, Nattumangalam, Rajaboja, Rajakulam (Rajakulam and Parvatha Rajakulam), Rajavasal, Kalian,Sani,thuluva vaelalar(tholuva), Maravan, and Servaikkaran. The Agam udaiyars slowly migrated towards the northern part of Tamil Nadu, settled there and changed their caste name to Thuluva Vellala. Thuluva vellalar is just the renaming of Agam udayar and hence are classified as one by the Tamil Nadu government, India[17]. Intermingling of on a large scale between two distinct communities is very unlikely and has no historical evidence. The Agam udaiyars changed their name to Thuluva Vellala.
[edit] History
[edit] Origins
There are diverse theories with regard to the origin of Mukkulathors.
Dr Spencer Wells and Dr. Pitchappan have found an ancient DNA marker in the blood of Kallar that links them to the very first modern humans who migrated out of Africa and travelling through the southern coastline of Asia had eventually reached Australia. Yet, this is an isolated case found only among the individuals of the Kallar caste.{{Factdate=Marc
[edit] The Nayak Period and the Polygars
The downfall of the Mukkulathors occurred in 1345 with the fall of Vira Pandyan IV and the subsequent conquest of Madurai by the Delhi Sultanate. However, the southern territories of the Sultanate soon asserted their independence and the Mukkulathors recovered under the Vijayanagar Empire and later under the Nayak dynasty during whose period they served as Polygars or chieftains. The Nayaks were actually governors appointed by Vijayanagar kings and were Balija Naidus of Telugu origin. Later, after the fall of Vijayanagar, they established some measure of independence in the provinces which they governed and appointed individuals from the warrior Mukkulathor clans as their military chieftains and governors. After a century of peace and prosperity, the Nayak kingdom disintegrated and regional Polygar chieftains most of whom were from the Mukkulathor communities, making use of this opportunity, established their dominance and rule in the areas which they governed. However, just as their sun was in its ascendancy there arose a serious obstacle in the form of the British East India Company who desired to force the Polygars into submission and annex their territories to the Madras Presidency.
[edit] Freedom fighters and the Polygar Wars
There was a clash of interests between Mukkulathor Polygar chieftains seeking to recover their lands after 400 years of foreign rule and the British East India Company, an emerging power seeking to expand its influence and power into new territories and to arrest the growth of French influence in India ahead of the Seven Years War.
The first direct challenge was thrown by Puli Thevan in 1755. This was precipitated by the support the British East India Company lent to Puli Thevar's enemy, the Nawab of Arcot. Puli Thevar is remembered as the first king to have fought and defeated the British in India. His exploits have since become legendary.
Resistance to British rule was also offered by Padal Vellaiya Tevan who fought the British along with Kattabomman. His son Desakaval Senbaga Tevar is also remembered for his exploits.
Queen Velu Nachiyar, Queen of Sivaganga, is another noted personality who fought with the British during early British Era.
The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers are notable for their role in the Polygar Wars. They were eventually captured by the British and hanged in 1801.
All the fighters had some amount of kallar warriors.
[edit] Surnames
The surnames used by the Mukulathor people are Ambalakarar("not" ambalakaran/valayar), Servai, Vandaiyar,Veeramundar,Paluvettaraiyar,Malayaman,Vallavaraiyar,Etrandaar,Mannaiyar, Nattar (not Nadar), kumarandar,rajaliyar etc. It is a general practice in Tamil Nadu to address a Thevar woman as "Nachchiyaar". The Kallars of Dindigul, Trichy, Thanjavur, Theni, Madurai, Sivaganga, Pudukottai and Ramnad Districts have very distinct surnames. Some of the most common names are Anjathevar,Olivarayar, Vanathirayar, Sendapiriyar, OOnayaar, Alathondamar, Ambalam, Aarsuthiyar,Kaadavaraayar, Kalingarayar, Vandaiyaar, Veeramundar, Sepillaiyar, Vallundar, Thanjaraayar, Chozhangaraayar, Kandiyar, Pursaar, Vaanavaraayar, Mazhavaraayar, Payer, Kommatti, Mootar, Patti, Kannakkarar, Irungular, Singilaar, Pallavaraayar, Ponnapoondar, Pullavaraayar, Servai, araimeendar, Vanavarayar, Vairayar, Ponpethiar,G opalar, Thondaimaan, Thevar, Kandapillai, Vayaadiyar, Vanniar, Nattaar, Vallambar, Alankara Priyar, mavaliyar, Munaiyatriyar, Keerudayar, Saaluvar, Manraayar, Kaadavaraayar, Madhavarayar, Mudaliyar, Onthiriyar, Servai, Serumadar, Sethurayar, Vambaliar, Thenkondaar, Mankondaar, Kaaduvetiyaar, Sozhagar, Chozanga Nattar, etc. There are over 700 surnames in use.
Not many marriages happen between people with the same surname. The Kallar with surname of "Vanniar" or "Vanniyar" still follow the traditional ways. In Thanjavur district the oldest person in the village is treated as "Arasukarar" (king), and they have been given the first respect during the "Pongal" festival. This has been followed all the way from Chola kingdom as heard. Every surname has its own description, for example The people who hold sword(vaal) and patrol the city during the Chola period are called "Valludayar" later it becomes "Vandayar".
Some of the surnames are seen in Tamil copper-plate inscriptions was also mentioned in Ponniyin Selvan (Tamil historical novel written by Kalki Krishnamurthy).
[edit] Religion
They are traditionally Hindus. Today they constitute a significant part of the Tamil community in India, Sri Lanka, and in other parts of the world.
[edit] In Inscriptions
Inscription, from 1655, records an accord between the Sthanathar, the Chetti merchant community, and the Nattar to contribute fifty Kalanju of gold to the Elunattu Mutt at Chidambaram. Link [1]
[edit] Current Status
Although a great many of the members are still agriculturalists, many have also progressed up the social ladder as doctors, engineers, entrepreneurs, politicians and civil servants. Large number of people from the community are serving the nation as military men. Large number of people serving the tamilnadu police department.
[edit] The code of Predatory Warfare and Self-sacrifice by Maravars and warrior castes in ancient Tamilnadu
Avippali, Thannai, Verttal, Vallan pakkam, Pun Kilithu Mudiyum Maram and Marakkanchi: the forms of martial self-sacrifice and suicidal battle of the warrior as the ultimate expression of honour and his loyalty to his King. These six forms of martial self-sacrifice are defined as described by the works referred to above.
Pulla Vazhkai Vallan Pakkam – the martial attitude of the warrior who goes forth into suicidal battle is mentioned by Tholkappiyam. The other works refer to it as Thannai Verttal. Duarte Barbosa describes the practice among the Nayar(of the Chera kingdom). It was later noticed by British officials as well. It was also prevalent among the Maravar (of the Pandya kingdom) from whom the Aapathhuthavi bodyguard was selected. Thannai Verttal also refers to the self-sacrifice of a warrior on hearing that his king or commander has died (Purapporul Venpa Malai). Punkilithu Mudiyum Maram is the martial act of a warrior who commits self-sacrifice by tearing apart his battle wound.
Another form of martial self-sacrifice mentioned by all the works except Veera soliyam, is Avippali. Tamil inscriptions speak of it as Navakandam. Inscriptions found in many parts of Tamilnadu provide greater information on the practice. Navakandam is the act of a warrior who slices his own neck to fulfil the vow made to korravai – the Tamil goddess of war – for his commanders’ victory in battle. The Kalingathu Parani(10) – a work which celebrates the victory of the Chola king Kulotunga and his general Thondaman in the battle for Kalinga, describes the practice in detail. “The temple of korravai is decorated with lotus flowers which bloomed when the warriors sliced their own necks”(106); “they slice the base of their necks; the severed heads are given to the goddess”(111); “when the neck is sliced and the head is severed, the headless body jumps with joy for having fulfilled the vow”(113).
The epics of Chilapadikaram (5: 79-86) and Manimekalai (6: 50-51) mention the practice. To ensure the complete severing of the head, the warrior tied his hair to a bamboo bent taut before he cut his neck. Hero stones depicting this practice are found all over Tamil Nadu, and are called Saavan Kallu by locals. The warriors who thus committed self-sacrifice were not only deified in hero stones (saavan kallu) and worshipped but their relatives were given lands which were exempted from tax(11).
An area handbook (Tharamangalam) of the Tamilnadu archeology department notes that “the Nava Kandam sculpture which is found widely all over Kongu Nadu (Coimbatore, Salem) is to be seen at the Tharamangalam Kailasanathar kovil also. The people call it Saavan Kallu. “The practice of Nava Kandam existed in Kongu Nadu till the early part of this [i.e., 20th] century.”(12)
A Saavan Kallu at Thenkarai Moolanatha sami Kovil in Madurai, depicting the act of a warrior holding his hair with his left hand and slicing his neck with his right – 14th century – is said to be annually worshipped by the Conjeevaram Mudaliyars.(13) The Conjeevaram Mudaliyars are Kaikolar, a presentday weaving caste which was militarized under the Chola empire and was made into a special military body; there are indications that Kaikolar warriors practiced Nava Kandam(14).
Apart from these codified forms of martial self-sacrifice, a method called Vadakkiruththal is mentioned in Tamil heroic poetry. It is the act of a warrior king fasting to death, if some dire dishonour were to come upon him(15). The Tamil teacher, and the Dravidian propagandist, turned the song of the legendary Chera king Irumborai who committed self-sacrifice when he was taken captive by his enemies into a compelling theme in Tamil renaissance.
The Avippali form of martial self-sacrifice as the ultimate expression of loyalty to one’s commander, is deeply embedded in the Tamil psyche. Senchorru-kadan (the debt of red rice) is a phrase that is widely used today by Tamils as an expression of loyalty. One frequently hears of it in a popular Tamil song. The phrase sands for the ritual of partaking of rice by which Maravar and other Tamil military caste warriors bound themselves to their king or commander to die in suicidal battle for him, or to commit self-sacrifice on the day he was slain. Of Avippali, the Puraporul Venba Malai ([verse] 92) says, “thinking of nothing but the red (blood) rice the Maravar give their life as offering in battle.”
The ritual of red or blood rice was described by two Muslim travellers who had visited the Tamil country in the 9th century. “A quantity of cooked rice was spread before the king, and some three or four hundred persons came of their own accord and received each a small quantity of rice from the king’s own hands, after he himself had eaten some. By eating of this rice, they all engage themselvesto burn themselves on the day the king dies or is slain; and they punctually fulfill their promise.”(16) In modern times it has been observed that “when a Maravar takes food in the house of a stranger, he will take a pinch of earth and put it on the food before he commences his meal.”(17) This act freed him from the debt of blood rice.[2]
[edit] Notes
^ http://www.ambedkar.org/chandrabhan/Secularismor.htm
^ Castes and Tribes of Southern India Vol I, Pg 5
^ a b c Castes and Tribes of Southern India Vol I, Pg 6
^ Castes and Tribes of Southern India Vol I, Pg 7
^ a b c Castes and Tribes of Southern India Vol I, Pg 8
[edit] References
Thurston, Edgar; K. Rangachari (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India Volume I - A and B. Madras: Government Press.
On Tamil Militarism- The suppression of Tamil military castes
Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India
[edit] List of prominent Mukkulathors
See also: List of Thevars
N.Periasamy,Ex M.L.A (D.M.K) OF Thoothukudi.They are servai caste.
N.P.Geetha Jeevan, Social Welfare Minister (D.M.K).They are servai caste.
R.Kasthuri Thangam,Mayor of Thoothukudi.They are servai caste.
[edit] See also
Forward Castes
Martial Race
Puli Thevar
Maruthu Pandiyar
U. Muthuramalingam Thevar
Karaikudi
Devapattu Kallars
[edit] External links

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